The Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights

A Digest of Sources

Prepared for the GlobalTrust Project

By Tamar Ben-Artzi

(Updated February 2015)

1. Books
2. Academic Articles
3. UN Treaty Bodies’ General Comments
4. Additional Documents by UN Treaty Bodies
5. Documents by Academic and Independent Human Rights Experts and UN Special Mandate-Holders
6. Selected Case Law
7. Jurisdiction Articles in Selected Human Rights Treaties
8. Additional Resources

1. Books

Takele Soboka Bulto, The Extraterritorial Application of the Human Right to Water in Africa, Cambridge University Press, (2013).

Takele Soboka Bulto, Extraterritoriality and International Human Rights Law: The Spatial Reach of African Human Rights Treaties, Routledge Research in Human Rights Law (2015).

Fons Coomans and Menno Kamminga, Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights Treaties, Intersentia (2004).

Fons Coomans & Rolf Künnemann, Cases and Concepts on Extraterritorial Obligations in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Intersentia (2012).

Surya Deva and David Bilchitz (eds.), Human Rights Obligations of Business:

Beyond the Corporate Responsibility to Respect? Cambridge University Press (2013).

Asbjørn Eide, Catarina Krause, Allan Rosas (eds.), Economic Social and Cultural Rights: A Textbook, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers (2001).

Mark Gibney, Global Refugee Crisis: (Second Edition), AB-CLIO Publishing (2010).

Mark Gibney & Wouter Vandenhole, (eds.), Litigating Transnational Human Rights Obligations: Alternative Judgements, Routledge Research in Law (2013).

Michal Gondek, The Reach of Human Rights in a Globalizing World: Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights Treaties, Intersentia (2009).

Maarten den Heijer, Europe and Extraterritorial Asylum (2011).

Mark Gibney & Sigrun Skogly, Universal Human Rights and Extraterritorial Obligations, University of Pennsylvania Press (2010).

George Kent, Global Obligations for the Right to Food, Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group (2007).

Malcolm Langford, Wouter Vandenhole, Martin Scheinin & Willem Van Genugten, Global Justice, State Duties: The Extraterritorial Scope of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in International Law, Cambridge University Press (2013).

Marco Milanovic, Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights Treaties: Law, Principles and Policy, Oxford University Press (2011).

Margot Salomon, Arne Torstensen, & Wouter Vandenhole, Casting the Net Wider: Human Rights, Development and New Duty Bearers, Intersentia (2007).

Margot E. Salomon, Global Responsibility for Human Rights: World Poverty and the Development of International Law, Oxford University Press (2007).

Sigrun Skogly, Beyond National Borders: States’ Human Rights Obligations in International Cooperation, Intersentia (2006).

 

2. Academic Articles

Paul Arnell, Extraterritorial Human Rights: A Tool for Poverty Reduction? 38 Comp. & Int’l L.J S. Afr. 396 (2005).

Takele Soboka Bulto, Towards Rights-Duties Congruence: Extraterritorial Application of the Human Right to Water in the African Human Rights System, 29 Neth. Q. Hum. Rts. 29 491 (2011).

Takele Soboka Bulto, Patching the Legal Black Hole: The Extraterritorial Reach of States’ Human Rights Duties in the African Human Rights, 27 S. Afr. J. on Hum. Rts. 249 (2011).

Eyal Benvenisti, Sovereigns as Trustees of Humanity: On the Accountability of States to Foreign Stakeholders, 107 Am. J. Int’l L. 295 (2013).

Samantha Besson, The Extraterritoriality of the European Convention on Human Rights: Why Human Rights Depend on Jurisdiction and What Jurisdiction Amounts to, 25 Leiden J. Int’l L. 857 (2012).

Christian Courtis, The Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A New Instrument to Address Human Rights Violations, 3 Global Pol’y 484, 486 (2012).

Sarah H. Cleveland, Embedded International Law and the Constitution Abroad, 110 Colum. L. Rev. 225 (2010).

 Fons Coomans, The Extraterritorial Scope of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in the Work of the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 11 Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 1 (2011). 

Olivier De Schutter, Globalization and Jurisdiction: Lessons from the European Convention on Human Rights, 6 Baltic Y.B Int’l L. 185 (2006).

Olivier De Schutter, Reshaping Global Governance: The Case of the Right to Food, 3 Global Pol’y 480 (2012).

Olivier De Schutter, Asbjørn Eide, Ashfaq Khalfan, Marcos Orellana, Margot Salomon & Ian Seiderman, Commentary to the Maastricht Principles on Extraterritorial Obligations, 34 Hum. Rts. Q. 1085 (2012).

Mark Gibney, Universal Duties: The Responsibility to Protect, the Duty to Prevent (Genocide) and Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations, 3 Global Resp. Protect 123 (2011).

Marlies Hesselman, Sharing International Responsibility for Poor Migrants? An Analysis of Extra-Territorial Socio-Economic Human Rights Law, 15 Eur. J. Soc. Sec. 187 (2013).

Hugh King, Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations of States, 9 Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 521 (2009).

John H. Knox, Climate Change and Human Rights Law, 50 Va. J. Int’l L. 163, 200-212 (2010).

Marko Milanovic, Extraterritorial Derogations from Human Rights Treaties in Armed Conflict, Collected Courses of the Academy of European Law, Oxford University Press (2014).

Sarah Miller, Revisiting Extraterritorial Jurisdiction: A Territorial Justification for Extraterritorial Jurisdiction under the European Convention, 20 Eur. J. Int’l L. 1223 (2009). 

Barbara Miltner, Revisiting Extraterritoriality After Al-Skeini: The ECHR and Its Lessons, 33 Mich. J. Int’l L. 693 (2012).

Amrei Muller, Limitations to and Derogations from Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 9 Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 557 (2009).

Gorik Ooms and Rachel Hammonds, Global Governance of Health and the Requirements of Human Rights, 3 Global Pol’y 3 476, 478 (2012).

Margot E. Salomon, Is There a Legal Duty to Address World Poverty?, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies Policy Paper, ISSN 1830-1541 (2012-2013).

Margot E. Salomon and Ian Seiderman, Human Rights Norms for a Globalized World: The Maastricht Principles on Extraterritorial Obligations of States in the area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 3 Global Pol’y 458 (2012).

Yuval Shany, Taking Universality Seriously: A Functional Approach to Extraterritoriality in International Human Rights Law, 7 LEHR 47 (2013).

Sigrun I. Skogly, Right to Adequate Food: National Implementation and Extraterritorial Obligations, 11 Max Plank Y.B U.N L. 339 (2007).

Sigrun I. Skogly, Global Responsibility for Human Rights, 29 Oxford J. Legal Stud. 827 (2009).

Alastair Stewart, Back to the Drawing Board: Al-Skeini v. UK and the Extraterritorial Application of the European Convention on Human Rights, 4 UCL Hum. Rts. Rev. 110 (2011).

Wouter Vandenhole, Third State Obligations under the ICESCR: A Case Study of EU Sugar Policy, 76 Nordic J. Int’l L. 73 (2007).

Wouter Vandenhole, Beyond Territoriality: The Maastricht Principles on Extra-Territorial Obligations in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 29 Neth. Q. Hum. Rts. 429, 429-433 (2011).

Wouter Vandenhole, Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations: Taking Stock, Looking Forward, Eur. J. Int’l L. 804 (2013/5).  

Michael Wabwile, Re-Examining States’ External Obligation to Implement Economic and Social Right of Children, 22 Can. J. L. & Juris. 407 (2009).

Ralph Wilde, Triggering State Obligations Extraterritorially: The Spatial Test in Certain Human Rights Treaties 40 Isr. L. Rev. 503 (2007).

Ralph Wilde, The Extraterritorial Application of International Human Rights Law on Civil and Political Rights, in Routledge Handbook of International Human Rights Law, 635-661 (2013).

Ralph Wilde, Human Rights Beyond Borders At The World Court: The Significance Of The International Court Of Justice’s Jurisprudence On The Extraterritorial Application Of International Human Rights Law Treaties, 12 Chinese JIL 639, 656-673 (2013).

3. UN Treaty Bodies General Comments

A. Human Rights Committee

Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 31: Nature of the General Legal Obligation Imposed on States Parties to the Covenant, 26 May 2004, CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.13.

 

B. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR)

CESCR General Comment No. 3:  The nature of States parties’ obligations 

(art. 2, para. 1, of the Covenant), 14 December 1990, E/1991/23.

CESCR General Comment No. 12:  The right to adequate food, May 12 1999, E/C.12/1999/5, para. 17, 36-37.

CESCR General Comment No. 13:  The right to education (article 13 of the Covenant), 8 December 1999, E/C.12/1999/10, para. 47.

CESCR General Comment No. 14:  The right to the highest attainable standard of health, August 11 2000, E/C.12/2000/4, para. 39, 45.  

CESCR General Comment No. 15:  The right to water (arts. 11 and 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights), 20 January 2003, E/C.12/2002/11, para. 31.

CESCR General Comment No. 19:  The Right to Social Security (Art. 9 of the Covenant), 4 February 2008, E/C.12/GC/19, para. 54.

 

C. Committee against Torture

CAT General Comment No. 2: Implementation of Article 2 by States Parties, 24 January 2008, CAT/C/GC/2.

CAT General Comment No. 3: Implementation of Article 14 by State Parties, 19 November 2012, CAT/C/GC/3, para. 22.

 

D. Committee on the Rights of the Child

CRC General Comment No. 16 (2013) on State obligations regarding the impact of the business sector on children’s rights, 17 April 2013, CRC/C/GC/16 (see: “V. State obligations in specific contexts”; “C. Children’s rights and global operations of business”).

4. Additional Documents by UN Treaty Bodies

(Concluding Observations and Official Statements)

A. Human Rights Committee

Concluding observations on the sixth periodic report of Germany, adopted by the Human Rights Committee at its 106th session (15 October-2 November 2012), CCPR/C/DEU/CO/6, para. 16.

Concluding observations on the fourth periodic report of the United States of America, 23 April 2014, CCPR/C/USA/CO/4, para 4.

 

B. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR)

CESCR Substantive Issues Arising In the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Poverty and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Statement adopted by the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights on 4 May 2001, 10 May 2001, E/C.12/2001/10, para. 15-17.

CESCR Statement on the obligations of States parties regarding the corporate sector and economic, social and cultural rights, 20 May 2011, E/C.12/2011/1, para. 5-6.

CESCR Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, Concluding observations of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Germany, 12 July 2011, E/C.12/DEU/CO/5, para. 9, 11.

CESCR Concluding observations on the fourth periodic report of Austria, 13 December 2013, E/C.12/AUT/CO/4, para. 12.

CESCR Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Norway, 13 December 2013, E/C.12/NOR/CO/5, para. 6.

CESCR Concluding observations concerning the fourth periodic report of Belgium, 23 December 2013, E/C.12/BEL/CO/4, para. 22.

CESCR Concluding observations on the second periodic report of China, including Hong Kong, China and Macao, China, 23 May 2014, E/C.12/CHN/CO/2, para. 12.

 

C. Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

CRC Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Denmark, 7 April 2011, CRC/C/DNK/CO/4, para. 30.

CRC Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Finland, 3 August 2011, CRC/C/FIN/CO/4, para. 23-24.

CRC Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Bahrain, 3 August 2011, CRC/C/BHR/CO/2-3, para. 21.

CRC Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Italy, 31 October 2011, CRC/C/ITA/CO/3-4, para. 21.

CRC Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 12, paragraph 1, of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, Concluding observations: Sweden, 23 January 2012, CRC/C/OPSC/SWE/CO/1, para. 21.

CRC Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Republic of Korea, 2 February 2012, CRC/C/KOR/CO/3-4, para 26-27, 76.

CRC Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Thailand, 17 February 2012, CRC/C/THA/CO/3-4, para. 29-30.

CRC Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Azerbaijan, 12 March 2012, CRC/C/AZE/CO/3-4, para. 29.

CRC Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Turkey, 20 July 2012, CRC/C/TUR/CO/2-3, para. 22-23.

CRC Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 44 of the Convention, Concluding observations: Australia, 28 August 2012, CRC/C/AUS/CO/4, para. 27-28.

CRC Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Malta, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-second session (14 January–1 February 2013), 18 June 2013, CRC/C/MLT/CO/2 (see: IV: Main areas of concern and recommendations; Child rights and the business sector).

CRC Concluding observations on the initial report of Uzbekistan submitted under article 12 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-third session (27 May – 14 June 2013), 8 July 2013, CRC/C/OPSC/UZB/CO/1, para. 28-29.

CRC Concluding observations on the initial report of Paraguay submitted under article 12 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-fourth session (16 September–4 October 2013), 25 October 2013, CRC/C/OPSC/PRY/CO/1, para. 40-41.

CRC Concluding observations on the combined second and third periodic reports of Monaco, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-fourth session (16 September-4 October 2013), 29 October 2013, CRC/C/MCO/CO/2-3, para. 20.

CRC Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic reports of Germany, 25 February 2014, CRC/C/DEU/CO/3-4, para. 22-23.

 

D. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD)

CERD Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination: Canada, 25 May 2007, CERD/C/CAN/CO/18, para. 17.

CERD Consideration of reports Submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination: Australia, 13 September 2010, CERD/C/AUS/CO/15-17, para. 13.

CERD Consideration of reports Submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination: Norway, 8 April 2011, CERD/C/NOR/CO/19-20, para. 17.

CERD Consideration of reports Submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 14 September 2011, CERD/C/GBR/CO/18-20, para. 29.

CERD Consideration of reports Submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination: Canada, 4 April 2012, CERD/C/CAN/CO/19-20, para. 14.

 

E. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)

CEDAW General Recommendation No. 28 on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 16 December 2010, CEDAW/C/GC/28, para. 12, 36.

CEDAW Concluding Observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of India, 24 July 2014, CEDAW/C/IND/CO/4-5, para. 14-15.

 

5. Documents Prepared by Academic and Independent Human Rights Experts and UN Special Mandate-Holders

A. Documents by UN Special Mandate-Holders and Independent Experts

Report of the open-ended working group to consider options regarding the elaboration of an optional protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on its second session, 10 February 2005, E/CN.4/2005/52.  

Report of the Independent Expert on the effects of foreign debt and other related international financial obligations of States on the full enjoyment of all human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights, Cephas Lumina, Addendum, Mission to Australia (7–11 February 2011) and Solomon Islands (14–18 February 2011), 25 May 2011, A/HRC/17/37/Add.1, p. 35, 99.

Report on the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Analytical study on the relationship between human rights and the environment, 16 December 2011, A/HRC/19/34, p. 14-15.

Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Olivier De Schutter: Addendum, Guiding Principles on Human Rights Impact Assessments of Trade and Investment Agreements, 19 December 2011, A/HRC/19/59/Add.5, para 2.6.

Briefing Note 07, Underwriting the Poor: A Global Fund for Social Protection, Olivier De Schutter and Magdalena Sepulveda (2012), p. 7.

Report of the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children, Joy Nagozi Ezeilo, 18 March 2013, A/HRC/23/48.

Report of the Independent Expert on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment, John H. Knox, Mapping Report, 30 December 2013, A/HRC/25/53.

The negative impact of the non-repatriation of funds of illicit origin on the enjoyment of human rights, Final report of the Independent Expert on the effects of foreign debt and other related international financial obligations of States on the full enjoyment of all human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights, Cephas Lumina, 7 March 2014, A/HRC/25/52,

Report of the Special Rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation, Catarina de Albuquerque, Common violations of the human rights to water and sanitation, 30 June 2014, A/HRC/27/55.

B. Documents Prepared by Academics and Human Rights Experts

Global Economy, Global Rights: A practitioners’ guide for interpreting human rights obligations in the global economy (2014).

Human Rights, Indigenous Rights and Canada’s Extraterritorial Obligations, Thematic Hearing for 153rd Period of Sessions, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, a submission by the Canadian Network on Corporate Accountability (2014),

Owning Seeds, Accessing Food: A Human Rights Impact Assessment of UPOV 1991 Based on Case Studies in Kenya, Peru and the Philippines (2014).

Parallel Report submitted by the Global Initiative for Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (GI-ESCR) to the Country Report Task Force of the Human Rights Committee on the occasion of the consideration of List of Issues related to Sixth Periodic Report of Canada during the Committee’s 112th Session (2014).

Working Paper, Human Rights Law Sources: UN Pronouncements on Extra-Territorial Obligations (2015).

The Maastricht Principles In Practice: Extraterritorial Obligations in the Context of Eco-destruction and Climate Change, Published by FIAN International for the ETO Consortium (2014).

The Maastricht Principles in Practice: Extraterritorial Obligations in the Context of International Financial Institutions, Published by FIAN International for the ETO Consortium (2014).

 

C. Additional Soft Law Instruments

The Maastricht Principles on Extraterritorial Obligations of States in the area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (2011).

Bangkok Declaration on Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations (2014).

Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development, Bangkok Declaration on Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations (2014).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Selected Case Law

 

 

A. UN Human Rights Committee

 

Lilian Celiberti de Casariego v. Uruguay, Communication No. 56/79, View of 29 July 1981, CCPR/C/13/D/56/1979 (1981).

 

Lopez Burgos v. Uruguay, Communication No. R.12/52, Human Rights Committee, Views (6 June 1979), UN Doc. Supp. No. 40 (A/36/40), CCPR/C/13/D/52/1979 (1981).

 

Mabel Pereira Montero v. Uruguay, Communication No. 106/1981, U.N. Doc. Supp. No. 40 (A/38/40) at 186 (1983).

 

 

B. European Court of Human Rights

 

Soering v. the United Kingdom, ECtHR, App. No. 14038/88 (1989).

 

Drozd and Janousek v. France and Spain, ECtHR, App. No. 12747/87 (1992).

 

Loizidou v. Turkey (Preliminary Objections), ECtHR, App. No. 15318/89 (1995).

 

Loizidou v. Turkey, ECtHR, App. No. 15318/89 (1995).

 

Yonghong v. Portugal, ECtHR, App. No. 50887/99 (1999).

 

Ocalan v. Turkey (Admissibility Decision), ECtHR, App. No. 46221/99 (2000).

 

Issa and Others v. Turkey (Admissibility Decision), ECtHR App. No.31821/96 (2000).

 

Bankovic v. Belgium, ECtHR, App. No. 52207/99 (2001).

 

Cyprus v. Turkey, ECtHR, App. No. 25781/94 (2001).

 

Ocalan v. Turkey, ECtHR, App. No. 46221/99 (2005).

 

Issa and Others v. Turkey, ECtHR, App. No.31821/96 (2004).

 

Ilascu and Others v. Moldova and Russia, ECtHR, App. No. 48787/99 (2004).

 

Isaak and Others v. Turkey (Admissibility Decision), ECtHR, App. No. 44587/98 (2006).

 

Solmou and Others v. Turkey, ECtHR, App. No. 36832/97 (2008).

 

Andreou v. Turkey (Admissibility Decision), ECtHR, App. No. 45653/99 (2008).

 

Andreou v. Turkey, ECtHR, App. No. 45653/99 (2009).

 

Al-Saadoon and Mufdhi v. The United Kingdom, ECtHR, App. No. 61498/08 (2010).

 

Al-Skeini v. The United Kingdom, ECtHR, App. No. 5572/107 (2011).

 

Al-Jedda v. The United Kingdom, ECtHR, App. No. 27021/08 (2011).

 

Hassan v. The United Kingdom, EctHR, App. No. 29750/09 (2014).

 

Jaloud v. The Netherlands, EctHR, App. No. 47708/08 (2014).

 

 

C. ICJ

 

Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, 2004 ICJ 136, 163.

 

Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda), 2005 ICJ 116, 168.

 

Case Concerning Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russia), Provisional Measures, I.C.J Reports 2008 353.

 

 

D. Additional Case Law

 

S.S. Lotus (France v. Turkey), P.C.I.J. (ser. A) No. 10. (1927).

 

Coard V. US, Report No.109/99, Inter-Am. C.H.R (1999).

 

Saldano v. Argentina, Report No. 38/99, Inter-Am. C.H.R (1998).


Serdar Mohammed v. Ministry of Defense, High Court of Justice (Queen’s Bench Division), Case No. HQ12X03367 EWHC 1369 (QB) (2014).


(
For a review of the case and an analysis the court’s view on the jurisdiction question, see: E. MacKenzie, The Lawfulness of Detention by British Forces in Afghanistan – Serdar Mohammed v Ministry of Defence, U.K. Const. L. Blog, 2  June 2014).

 

 

E. Opinion Tribunals

 

Ruling of the Permanent People’s Tribunal, Session on the Canadian Mining Industry (2014-2016), Hearing on Latin America (2014).  

 

 

 

7. Jurisdiction: Articles in Selected Human Rights Treaties

 

 

A. The Presumption against Exterritorialy: UN Charter

 

Charter of the United Nations, 24 October 1945, 1 UNTS XVI, Article 2, para. 4.

 

 

B. Duty to Act in order to Ensure Fundamental Freedoms and Social and International Order

 

Charter of the United Nations, 24 October 1945, 1 UNTS XVI, Articles 55-56.  

 

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December 1948, G.A. Res. 217A (III), U.N. GAOR, 3d Sess, art. 1, U.N. Doc. A/RES/3/217A, Article 28.

 

 

C. The Jurisdiction Requirement

 

Convention on the Rights of the Child, GA Res. 44/25, Annex, 44 UN GAOR Supp. No. 49, A/44/49, 20 November 1989, 1577 UNTS 3, Article 2.

 

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 4 November 1950, 213 UNTS 221, Articles 1, 56.

 

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, GA Res. 46 UN GAO, 39th Sess. Supp. No. 51, A/39/51, 10 December 1984, 1465 UNTS 85, Article 2.

 

 

D. “Within the Territory and Subject to Its Jurisdiction”

 

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966, 999 UNTS 171, Article 2(1).

 

Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 5 March 2009, A/RES/63/117, Articles 2, 10, 13.

 

 

E. Specific/”Local” Jurisdiction Requirements

 

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 21 December 1965, 660 UNTS 195, Articles 3, 6, 14.

 

F. No Jurisdiction Required – “Free Standing Model of Applicability”

 

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (Fourth Geneva Convention), 12 August 1949, 75 UNTS 287, Article 1 (Common Article 1 to the Geneva Conventions).

 

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 16 December 1966, 993 UNTS 3, Article 2(1).

 

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 18 December 1979, 1249 UNTS 13.

 

 

G. Colonial Extension Clauses

 

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 4 November 1950, 213 UNTS 221, Article 56.

 

 

H. Derogation / Suspension Clauses

 

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966, 999 UNTS 171, Article 4.

 

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 4 November 1950, 213 UNTS 221, Article 15.

 

American Convention on Human Rights, “Pact of San Jose”, Costa Rica, 22 November 1969, Article 27.

 

 

 

8. Additional Resources

 

ETO Consortium

The ETO Consortium is a network of some 80 human rights related CSOs and academics. ETOs is short for extraterritorial obligations, the human rights obligations of states towards persons outside their territories. These obligations have so far been underused, even though they are crucial for addressing the challenges of globalization”.

 

GLOTHRO

A research networking program funded by the European Science Foundation. “The RNP GLOTHRO starts from the assumption that human rights obligations, in particular in the field of economic, social and cultural rights, need to be re-thought in the present era of globalisation”.